Wednesday, February 25, 2009
AHT can be caused by direct blows to the head, dropping or throwing a child, or shaking a child. Head trauma is the leading cause of death in child abuse cases in the United States.
How These Injuries Happen
Unlike other forms of inflicted head trauma, abusive head trauma results from injuries caused by someone vigorously shaking a child. Because the anatomy of infants puts them at particular risk for injury from this kind of action, the vast majority of victims are infants younger than 1 year old. The average age of victims is between 3 and 8 months, although these injuries are occasionally seen in children up to 4 years old.
The perpetrators in these cases are most often parents or caregivers. Common triggers are frustration or stress when the child is crying. Unfortunately, the shaking may have the desired effect: although at first the baby cries more, he or she may stop crying as the brain is damaged.
Approximately 60% of identified victims of shaking injury are male, and children of families who live at or below the poverty level are at an increased risk for these injuries as well as any type of child abuse. It is estimated that the perpetrators in 65% to 90% of cases are males — usually either the baby's father or the mother's boyfriend, often someone in his early twenties.
When someone forcefully shakes a baby, the child's head rotates about the neck uncontrollably because infants' neck muscles aren't well developed and provide little support for their heads. This violent movement pitches the infant's brain back and forth within the skull, sometimes rupturing blood vessels and nerves throughout the brain and tearing the brain tissue. The brain may strike the inside of the skull, causing bruising and bleeding to the brain.
The damage can be even greater when a shaking episode ends with an impact (hitting a wall or a crib mattress, for example), because the forces of acceleration and deceleration associated with an impact are so strong. After the shaking, swelling in the brain can cause enormous pressure within the skull, compressing blood vessels and increasing overall injury to its delicate structure.
Normal interaction with a child, like bouncing the baby on a knee, will not cause these injuries, although it's important to never shake a baby under any circumstances because gentle shaking can rapidly escalate.
What Are the Effects?
AHT often causes irreversible damage. In the worst cases, children die due to their injuries.
Children who survive may have:
1. partial or total blindness
2. hearing loss
4. developmental delays
5. impaired intellect
6. speech and learning difficulties
7. problems with memory and attention
8. severe mental retardation
9. cerebral palsy
Even in milder cases, in which babies looks normal immediately after the shaking, they may eventually develop one or more of these problems.
Sometimes the first sign of a problem isn't noticed until the child enters the school system and exhibits behavioral problems or learning difficulties. But by that time, it's more difficult to link these problems to a shaking incident from several years before.
Signs and Symptoms
In any abusive head trauma case, the duration and force of the shaking, the number of episodes, and whether impact is involved all affect the severity of the infant's injuries. In the most violent cases, children may arrive at the emergency room unconscious, suffering seizures, or in shock. But in many cases, infants may never be brought to medical attention if they don't exhibit such severe symptoms.
In less severe cases, a child who has been shaken may experience:
4. poor sucking or swallowing
5. decreased appetite
6. lack of smiling or vocalizing
9. difficulty breathing
10. altered consciousness
11. unequal pupil size
12. an inability to lift the head
13. an inability to focus the eyes or track movement
Many cases of AHT are brought in for medical care as "silent injuries." In other words, parents or caregivers don't often provide a history that the child has had abusive head trauma or a shaking injury, so doctors don't know to look for subtle or physical signs. This can sometimes result in children having injuries that aren't identified in the medical system.
And again, in many cases, babies who don't have severe symptoms may never be brought to a doctor. Many of the less severe symptoms such as vomiting or irritability may resolve and can have many non-abusive causes.
Unfortunately, unless a doctor has reason to suspect child abuse, mild cases (in which the infant seems lethargic, fussy, or perhaps isn't feeding well) are often misdiagnosed as a viral illness or colic. Without a diagnosis of child abuse and any resulting intervention with the parents or caregivers, these children may be shaken again, worsening any brain injury or damage.
If shaken baby syndrome is suspected, doctors may look for:
1. hemorrhages in the retinas of the eyes
2. skull fractures
3. swelling of the brain
4. subdural hematomas (blood collections pressing on the surface of the
5. rib and long bone (bones in the arms and legs) fractures
6. bruises around the head, neck, or chest
The Child's Development and Education
What makes AHT so devastating is that it often involves a total brain injury. For example, a child whose vision is severely impaired won't be able to learn through observation, which decreases the child's overall ability to learn.
The development of language, vision, balance, and motor coordination, all of which occur to varying degrees after birth, are particularly likely to be affected in any child who has AHT.
Such impairment can require rigorous physical and occupational therapy to help the child acquire skills that would have developed on their own had the brain injury not occurred.
As they get older, kids who were shaken as babies may require special education and continued therapy to help with language development and daily living skills, such as dressing themselves.
Before age 3, a child can receive speech or physical therapy through the Department of Public Health/ Early Intervention. Federal law requires that each state provide these services for children who have developmental disabilities as a result of being abused.
Some schools are also increasingly providing information and developmental assessments for kids under the age of 3. Parents can turn to a variety of rehabilitation and other therapists for early intervention services for children after abusive head trauma. Developmental assessments can assist in improving education outcomes as well as the overall well-being of the child.
After a child who's been diagnosed with abusive head trauma turns 3, it's the school district's responsibility to provide additional special educational services.
Abusive head trauma is 100% preventable. A key aspect of prevention is increasing awareness of the potential dangers of shaking.
Finding ways to alleviate the parent or caregiver's stress at the critical moments when a baby is crying can significantly reduce the risk to the child. Some hospital-based programs have helped new parents identify and prevent shaking injuries and understand how to respond when infants cry.
The National Center on Shaken Baby Syndrome offers a prevention program, the Period of Purple Crying, which seeks to help parents and other caregivers understand crying in normal infants. By defining and describing the sometimes inconsolable infant crying that can sometimes cause stress, anger, and frustration in parents and caregivers, the program hopes to educate and empower people to prevent AHT.
One method that may help is author Dr. Harvey Karp's "five S's":
1. Shushing (using "white noise" or rhythmic sounds that mimic the constant whir of noise in the womb, with things like vacuum cleaners, hair dryers, clothes dryers, a running tub, or a white noise CD)
2. Side/stomach positioning (placing the baby on the left side — to help digestion — or on the belly while holding him or her, then putting the sleeping baby in the crib or bassinet on his or her back)
3. Sucking (letting the baby breastfeed or bottle-feed, or giving the baby a pacifier or finger to suck on)
4. Swaddling (wrapping the baby up snugly in a blanket to help him or her feel more secure)
5. Swinging gently (rocking in a chair, using an infant swing, or taking a car ride to help duplicate the constant motion the baby felt in the womb)
If a baby in your care won't stop crying, you can also try the following:
1. Make sure the baby's basic needs are met (for example, he or she isn't hungry and doesn't need to be changed).
2. Check for signs of illness, like fever or swollen gums.
3. Rock or walk with the baby.
4. Sing or talk to the baby.
5. Offer the baby a pacifier or a noisy toy.
6. Take the baby for a ride in a stroller or strapped into a child safety
seat in the car.
7. Hold the baby close against your body and breathe calmly and slowly.
8. Call a friend or relative for support or to take care of the baby while
you take a break.
9. If nothing else works, put the baby on his or her back in the crib, close
the door, and check on the baby in 10 minutes.
10. Call your doctor if nothing seems to be helping your infant, in case
there is a medical reason for the fussiness.
To prevent potential AHT, parents and caregivers of infants need to learn how to respond to their own stress. It's important to talk to anyone caring for your baby about the dangers of shaking and how it can be prevented.
Reviewed by: Elaine Cabinum-Foeller, MD
Date reviewed: June 2008
p/s : Ni pun salah satu yg ku khuatiri... jauhkan lah segala kemungkinan itu Ya Allah.....
Sometimes a baby who seems healthy dies during sleep. This is called sudden infant death syndrome or SIDS. SIDS is also known as crib death.
In most cases, a parent or caregiver places the baby down to sleep and returns later to find the baby has died. It’s no one’s fault. SIDS can happen even when you do everything right.
Although SIDS is rare, it is one of the most common causes of death in babies between 1 and 12 months of age. Most babies who die of SIDS are between the ages of 2 and 4 months. More boys than girls die of SIDS, and most deaths occur in the winter.
1. What causes SIDS?
Doctors don't know what causes SIDS. It seems to happen more often in premature and low-birth-weight babies. It also is seen more often in babies whose mothers did not get medical care during the pregnancy and in babies whose mothers smoke. SIDS may also be more likely in babies who were part of a multiple pregnancy (for example, twins or triplets) or whose mothers are younger than 20.
When babies sleep on their bellies, they may not breathe well. Not too long ago, side sleeping was said to be okay. But babies placed on their sides can easily roll onto their bellies and could have trouble breathing.
Researchers are studying the possibility that SIDS may be caused by problems with how well the brain controls breathing and/or temperature during the first few months of life.
2. More research on this is needed.
What are the symptoms?
SIDS has no symptoms or warning signs. Babies who die of SIDS seem healthy before being put to bed. They show no signs of struggle and are often found in the same position as when they were placed in the bed.
How is SIDS diagnosed?
SIDS is named the cause of death only when no other cause is found. To find out why a baby died, medical experts review the baby's and parents' medical histories, study the area where the baby died, and do an autopsy.
What can you do to reduce the risk of SIDS?
There is no sure way to prevent SIDS, but doing certain things may help protect a baby:
3. The most important thing you can do is to always place your baby to sleep on his or her back rather than on the stomach or side.
Don't smoke while you are pregnant. Also, do not let anyone smoke around your baby after he or she is born.
For the first 6 months, have your baby sleep in a crib in the same room where you sleep.
Make sure the baby sleeps on a firm mattress (with a fitted sheet).
Don't put anything in the crib that a baby can pull over his or her head, such as blankets, comforters, stuffed toys, or pillows.
If you use bumper pads, use ones that are thin and firm, and make sure they are attached tightly to the crib.
Keep the room warm enough so that your baby can sleep in lightweight clothes without a blanket.
Consider offering your baby a pacifier at nap time and bedtime. This may help prevent SIDS, though experts do not know why.
If you breast-feed, wait until your baby is about a month old before you start giving him or her a pacifier.
Make sure your baby’s caregivers know what you expect them to do. Don't assume they know what to do to help reduce the risk of SIDS
By Amy Fackler, MA
Source :Yahoo Health
p/s : hmmmm ini lah selalu ku fikirkan tatkala anakku berada di Taska or berada bersama mereka2 selain dr diriku n suami hatta berada bersama ahli keluarga ku sendiri tidak termasuk ibu tercinta... Perkara yg sgt2 ku takutkan... Ya Allah, Kau peliharalah keselamatan cahaya yg telah kau berikan dalam hidupku dan lembutkan hati mereka yg memegang cahaya hidupku itu Ya Tuhan ku..... Aminn....
Friday, February 20, 2009
Thursday, February 19, 2009
awat la PBA tak kasi notis ka hapa ke dulu... ni tetiba je tak dak ayaq.. parah2... aku ni lau takda elektrik takpa lagi... tak da ayaq ni payah woooo.... ish2.....cam akak kat opis aku nak cakap " PBA ni loklaq sungguh, nak potong ayaq pun tak habaq..payah org nak amik ayaq sembahyang!!!"
ntah nape ari ni mood down skit tetiba je.. kepala otak mereng je rasa...
hmmm tak tau nak tulis pe, kepala utak ni blur jer.. ptg2 skit kang kot ok. sbnrnya byk nak post lam blog rini, gamba terbaru adwan la... tp tak de perasaan lak nak masukkan gambo dia..
k lah, setakat ni dulu. tgk la ptg2 skit nanti.. kot2 mood dh pulih...lau tak esok2 la...
Chiow!!!! : (
Monday, February 16, 2009
pada aku lau guna cloth diaper (CD) ni mmg menjimatkan budget untuk jangkamasa panjang dan buleh la guna lagi untuk kak ngah dia nanti...( heheh berangan 2nd bb adalah girl)
selain dari tu leh la mengelakkan bb dari terkena rashes atau melecek celah peha dia etc..
mmg la permulaan dia mengeluarkan belanja yang agak besar untuk membeli segala insert, liner n segala yang sewaktu dgnnya tuh.. tp selepas tu mmg menjimatkan dari kena beli diaposal diaper (DD)
yang mencapai ratusan ringgit untuk sebulan... (uih.... byk tuh)
hubby pun dh beri kata setuju untuk guna CD nie, dia siap suh survey n tgk yg mane sesuai....
tq hubby kerana memahami...
tapi aku ade masalah skit......
untuk digunakan semasa di taska, mungkin masalah skit sbb aku risau dorg tak reti nak handle CD tuh...
pastu satu lagik masalah aku ialah aku tak berapa nak paham lak cam ne CD ni berfungsi n cara nak sedia n gunakan etc.. leh ke sesape yang arif n baik ati explain camne nak ltk insert segala bagai...
(heheh hampeh kan aku ni...)
semalam aku sampai je, cuci2 diri trus g syeom dia pepuas lepas rindu. dia lak mak tok dia ckp dgr sore aku bagi salam je excited sgt. abah dia iaitu hubby aku kate dia tak mo tido sgt smlm sbb tau mama dia nak balik.
lau aku 3G dia siap sengih2 meleret nampak muka aku lam tpun abah dia....
bahagia rasa dpt tido sblh anak smlm.
2 malam lepas tido ngan patung arnab acu dia kasik... (heheheh ober sungguh mama dia ni...)
apa2 pun sonok dpt balik mengadap anak....
Friday, February 13, 2009
malam ni dia tido ngan abah dia la, mlm sok gak... huhuhuhukkkkk.....
Thursday, February 12, 2009
Lompat lah tinggi-tinggi,
Cepat lah manja cepat,
Cepat-cepat lah bangun berlari........
heheheh buleh ka lagu tuh???? hmmm tp just imagine si adwan yg baru nak masuk 5 bulan tuh dh leh bgn n berlari???!!! heheheh pengsan le mama dia....sanggup potong jari.....(angan-angan terlampau...ish2...)
saje je nak story mory the morning glory... (dgn bangganya..) sbnrnya si adwan bb aku tu dh pandai melompat-lompat gitu.. heheh tak tau la maybe dia lmbt lompat o cpt. maybe ade bb2 yg lain yg lebih advance dr dia, tp yg pasti aku bangga n seronok tgk perkembangan anak jantan aku tuh.. penat tuh bila dia dh start lompat2.. seronok dia ternganga2 ngn lebar sekali bila dpt lompat, cam yg dia dpt meniarap mula2 dulu la.. yg tak tahan tu lompat2 smp meleleh air liur py syok... hehehe.. tp mama dia la yg lenguh, passing lak kat abah dia, dua kali, tiga kali lompat dh ne letak dia, lau tak mau tercabut lengan. pantang pegang ketiak musti melompat.. abah dia selalu ckp tak yah nak beli dumbel untuk bg kuat muscle tgn... timang2 si adwan pun dah cukup.. sekali timang, 2 kali timang, 3 kali timang..... stop....fuhhhh... naik muscle cam hulk hogan... ekekekek....pastu lau nak perut yg buncit kempis n slim... kasik la dia lompat2 kat atas perut.. gerenti kuar angin n segala isi perut..heheh...
Wednesday, February 11, 2009
Cian sgt kat bb ni... tp bb ni kuat semangat n tabah. makin hari berat badan dia bertambah n alhamdulillah dia sihat. harini lak 11/02/09, insyaallah dia akan menjalani pembedahan jantungnya.. semoga semua berjalan lancar n semoga bb ni sihat n leh kuar wad n membesar bersama kanak2 lain yang sebaya dengannya...
Kepada Yana, ibu Salbilla... tabah la ye dik...
Tuesday, February 10, 2009
|Apa ada pada nama?|
hmmm nama ni di pilih oleh hubby n i... hubby pilih SALIHIN dan aku lak pilih ADWAN..... Pastu kami decide nak nak letak MUHAMMAD kt depan... so jadilah MUHAMMAD SALIHIN ADWAN BIN SAIFUDDIN......
Friday, February 6, 2009
(perasan sudirman ler tuh...)
Minggu ni aku,hubby n little honeypie balik kampung hubby>>>Kuala Kangsar, Bandaraya DiRaja.... eh2 bukan untuk g join perhimpunan yang dianjurkan pihak2 tertentu ek...balik nak melawat me Father in law yg dah merajuk sbb tak jadi balik minggu raye cina ritu (heheh maafkan kami abah)..... bkn pe, FIL aku tu dh rindu sgt kat cucu sulung sorang ni.. ye la kan cucu sulung la katakan... atih eda dia pun ada balik, cuti seminggu... atih dia siap pesan suh bg makan byk2 n bg tembam2, sok balik kampung sedap nak peluk n cubit pipi adwan...abes la anak aku ne gomol ngan makcik n pakcik dia...
Hmmm pada aku, balik kali ni ade sedikit istimewa...>>> balik naik ketapi (KTM) selalu naik bas je.. tah nape tah kali ni teringin nak naik ketapi. Last aku naik ketapi pun time aku tingkatan tiga... lama tuh... dah 13 tahun masa berlalu... pada aku kira istimewa la tuh... setelah sekian lama...tunggu akuuuuuu....hehe ter'excited' lak... camne ler rupe naik ketapi malam ni... tiket pada hubby... jgn ilangkan ye cayanggg..... heheheheh
coo coo coo keretapi, coo coo coo bunyinya laju2 ke depan, hebat sekali pon pon...(heheh tingat lagu time sekolah rendah lu...)
okeh... tunggu cerita aku naik ketapi minggu depan ekkkk.... dadaaa...
Thursday, February 5, 2009
McDonalds, Burger king, Time Zone… All places with ball pits in the children’s play area.
One of my sons lost his watch, and was very upset. We dug and dug in those balls, trying to find his watch.
Instead, we found vomit, food, faeces, and other stuff I do not want to discuss.
I went to the manager and raised hell. Come to find out, the ball pit is
only cleaned out once a month. I have
doubts that it is even done that often.
My kids will never play in another ball pit.
Some of you might not be parents, but you may have nieces, nephews,
grandchildren, or friends with children.
This will pertain to you too. As I read the following, my heart sank.
I urge each and every one of you to pass this on to as many people as you
can. I cannot stress how important this is!
Hi. My name is Lauren Archer, my son Kevin and I lived in Melbourne , Australia .
On October 2nd, 1999 I took my only son to McDonald’s for his 3rd birthday.
After he finished lunch, I allowed him to play in the ball pit. When he
started whining later on, I asked him what
was wrong, he pointed to the back of his pull-up and simply said “Mommy,
it hurts.” I couldn’t find anything wrong
with him at that time. I bathed him when we got home, and it was at that
point when I found a welt on his left buttock.
Upon investigating, it seemed as if there was something like a splinter under
the welt. I made an appointment to see the doctor the next day, but soon
he started vomiting and shaking, then his
eyes rolled back into his head. From there, we went to the emergency room.
He died later that night.
It turned out that the welt on his buttock was the tip of a hypodermic
needle that had broken off inside.
The autopsy revealed that Kevin had died from a heroine overdose. The
next week, the police removed the balls from
the ball pit. There was rotten food, several hypodermic needles: some
full, some used; knives, half-eaten candy,
diapers, faeces, and the stench of urine.
Don’t think it’s just McDonald’s either. A little boy had been playing in
a ball pit @ a Burger King & started
complaining of his legs hurting. He later died too. He was found to have
snake bites all over his legs & buttocks.
When they cleaned the ball pit they found that there was a snake’s nest in
the ball pit. He had suffered numerous
bites from a very poisonous snake.
Repost this if it scares the crap out of you!! Repost this if you care
about kids!! Please forward this to all
loving mothers, fathers and anyone who loves and cares for children!! What
has this world come to?? If a child is
not safe in a child’s play area then where??
If you want something,
you just go for it..
if you get it, you won..
but if you don’t get it,
you don’t lost
at least you have tried..
it’s never a shame to lost after trying..
but it is a shame if you lost without trying..
sit back..and thinks about my words..
and you will know..
that i’m not lying”
Nota: This is NOT written by me…